Marti Elementary School

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Educational Support » Orientation and Mobility

Orientation and Mobility

Laura Grayson

Orientation and mobility training (O & M) helps a blind impaired child know where he is in space and where he wants to go (orientation). It also helps him be able to carry out a plan to get there (mobility). Orientation and mobility skills should begin to be developed in infancy starting with basic body awareness and movement, and continuing on into adulthood as the individual learns skills that allow him to navigate his world efficiently, effectively, and safely.

O & M focus of training may include such things as:

  • Sensory awareness
  • Spatial concepts
  • Relationship which exist between objects in the environment
  • Searching skills
  • Independent movement
  • Sighted guide
  • Protective techniques
  • Cane skills      


O & M may provide consultation to the vision teacher, occupational therapist, physical therapist, early intervention specialist, and the family.

Even visually impaired children who have motor impairments need training in orientation and mobility. Though their O & M goals may not be independent travel, they may need O & M to participate more fully in events in their environments.


Orientation and Mobility specialists are training to provide instruction which will enable children with visual impairments to reach their highest level of independence.